mayer e learning

Ayres, P., "Impact of reducing intrinsic cognitive load on learning in a mathematical domain." In other words, service specifications are e-learning activities aligned with the e-learning pedagogical models and the instructional strategies". The One Laptop Per Child Foundation attempted to use a constructivist approach in its project. Contributors Harskamp, E. G., Mayer, R. E., & Suhre, C., "Does the modality principle for multimedia learning apply to science classrooms?" Park, B., Moreno, R., Seufert, T., & Brü., "Does cognitive load moderate the seductive details effect? ", Smith B, Reed P & Jones C (2008) ‘Mode Neutral’ pedagogy. Originators and Key Contributors: Watson... Summary: The phrase game reward systems describes the structure of rewards and incentives in a game that inspire intrinsic motivation... A behaviorist theory based on the fundamental idea that behaviors that are reinforced will tend to continue, while behaviors that... Summary: The GOMS Model is a human information processing model that predicts what skilled users will do in seemingly unpredictable... Once described by a colleague as “Freud in sonnet form”, [5] psychological giant Erik Erikson blurred the line between science... Summary: SWOT is an acronym that stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 69, 70–79, 2011. Learning is more effective when visuals are accompanied by audio narration versus onscreen text. It is also effective to end a lesson segment after releasing important information. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Moreover, academic self-regulation also helps students develop confidence in their ability to perform well in e-learning courses.[69]. The most effective method is to use either audio narration or on-screen text to accompany visuals. Please consider supporting us and gaining full access by becoming a member. Having just play and pause buttons can help more than having an array of controls (back, forward, play, pause). [54] There is ongoing debate concerning the mechanisms underlying these beneficial principles,[55] and on what boundary conditions may apply.[56]. 31–48). According to Mayer,[24] separate channels of working memory process auditory and visual information during any lesson. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(3), 15-24, 2005. Fully revised with two new chapters and sixteen updated chapters, e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning is your essential reference for evidence-based guidelines for designing, developing and evaluating asynchronous and … A useful goal of research on emotions in e-learning is to test an affective-cognitive model of e-learning with links among an e-learning episode, the learner's emotional reaction during learning, the learner's cognitive processing during learning, and the learning outcome. At least some visuals and some text. Richard Mayer is one of the most influential educational researchers: His theory of multimedia learning is widely cited, and his resulting principles for how to design learning materials have become a kind of gold standard in the instructional design world. More effective learning happens when learning is segmented into smaller chunks. Breaking down long lessons and passages into shorter ones helps promote deeper learning. History This may be unlikely given the range of learning and teaching styles, the potential ways technology can be implemented and the ways in which educational technology itself is changing. Another exception to this is when the learner needs to use the material as reference and will be going back to the presentation repeatedly. "Incorporating learner experience into the design of multimedia instruction." Learning and Instruction, 20, 216–224, 2010. Multimedia principles help to integrate words and graphics effectively. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 66(2), 98-112, 2008. Technologies provide support to integrate content, enable communication, and provide collaboration tools. [8] A number of other studies have shown these principles to be effective with learners of other ages and with non-technical learning content. [61], Emotional perspective focuses on the emotional aspects of learning, like motivation, engagement, fun, etc. Copyrighted Material. [58], Laurillard's conversational model[59] is also particularly relevant to e-learning, and Gilly Salmon's Five-Stage Model is a pedagogical approach to the use of discussion boards. Dr. Richard Mayer is an American educational psychologist who has made significant contributions to theories of cognition and learning, especially in the design of educational multimedia. Clarke, T., Ayres, P., & Sweller, J., "The impact of sequencing and prior knowledge on learning mathematics through spreadsheet applications." Author [83] Assessment methods for on-line participation have reviewed. Having graphics explained by both audio narration and on-screen text creates redundancy. (2019). [9][10], Research using learners who have greater prior knowledge in the lesson material sometimes finds results that contradict these design principles. should be cut out to reduce cognitive load that might happen through learning unnecessary content. Welcome to the Web site for e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning, 3rd Edition by Ruth C. Clark and Richard E. Mayer . A politeness effect in learning with web-based intelligent tutors. The International Journal of Management Education 3(3). Chandler, P., & Sweller, J., "Cognitive load theory and the format of instruction." Richard E. Mayer is professor of psychology at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Journal of Media Psychology: Theories, Methods, and Applications, 22(2), 52-60, 2010. (2011). Tam CW, Eastwood A. Download the official Learning Theories In Plain English eBook (Vol. His research interests include educational and cognitive psychology. Robot Turtles: The Board Game for Little Programmers has taken the kid coding world over by storm. Mayer’s best known contribution to the field of educational psychology is multimedia learning theory.The cognitive theory of multimedia learning is Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 126–136, 2000. The modality principle in multimedia learning. (2005). Originator: Jean Lave[1]... Summary: Stereotype threat is a phenomenon that occurs when people are at risk for living up to a negative stereotype... Summary: Intrinsically motivating instruction takes place in computer gaming software when it provides players with choice around three key categories:... Summary: Positive psychology is the study of happiness, flourishing, and what makes life worth living. This Web site gives you access to the rich tools and resources available for this text. Richard E. Mayer is Distinguished Professor of Psychology at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Mayer, R. E. (2005). E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning [With CDROM] by Richard E. Mayer 3.93 avg rating — 326 ratings — published 2002 — 17 editions How to use the Coherence Principle: You can use the Coherence Principle as you’re planning your visua… [69], With the academic environment, self-regulated learners usually set their academic goals and monitor and react themselves in process in order to achieve their goals. In 2014, a list of the Top 100 Eminent Psychologists of the Modern Era was published in the Archives of... Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is an instructional method of hands-on, active learning centered on the investigation and resolution of messy, real-world... Social science research shows that teaching climate change in way that emphasizes "doom and gloom" and scary facts does not... Padlet: An Easy to Use Online Collaboration Tool for Multimedia Sharing Padlet is a very user-friendly canvas or digital... Science and math concepts are often some of the most challenging for students to grasp. He is the year 2000 recipient of the E. L. Thorndike Awardfor car… Disentangling Conceptual and Embodied Mechanisms for Learning with Virtual and Physical Representations. Become a Premium member to receive full access, print feature, removing all ads, free lifetime downloads and updates to all eBooks and content. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 165-173. In other words, the multi-modal materials reduce the cognitive load imposed on working memory. Personalized messages that promote science learning in vertical environments. 2. E-Learning Theory (Mayer, Sweller, Moreno) E-learning theory consists of cognitive science principles that describe how electronic educational technology can be used and designed to promote effective learning. The less that learners know about the presentation content, the more they will be distracted by unrelated content. A tone that is more informal and conversational, conveying more of a social presence, helps promote deeper learning. This principle seems to apply more to low prior knowledge learners versus high prior knowledge learners. Yuan, Y., Lee, C.-Y., & Wang, C.-H. (2010). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Handbook 1, Bååth, J. Monero, R.& Mayer, R.E (2004). (1982) "Distance Students' Learning – Empirical Findings and Theoretical Deliberations", Areskog, N-H. (1995) The Tutorial Process – the Roles of Student Teacher and Tutor in a Long Term Perspective, Black, J. Nine ways to reduce cognitive load in multimedia learning. Cognition and Instruction, 19, 177–214, 2001. Clark, R. C., Nguyen, F., & Sweller, J., "Efficiency in learning: Evidence-based guidelines to manage cognitive load." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 18(3), 239, 2012. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 8, 147–154, 2002. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Many even believe that when considering the appropriate affordances of each (virtual or physical) representation, a blend that uses both can further enhance student learning (Olympiou & Zacharia, 2012[79]). Need Games, Icebreakers and Activities for Class? 1 of 2, Learning Theories in Plain English Vol. Dow, S. MayerMultimedia learning in an interactive self-explaining environment: What works in the design of … "Interactions between the isolated–interactive elements effect and levels of learner expertise: Experimental evidence from an accountancy class," Instructional Science, 38(3), 277-287, 2010. In S. Isotani, E. Millán, A. Ogan, P. Hastings, B. McLaren, & R. Luckin (Eds.). All these concepts have two aspects in common: learning and computers; except the SDL concept, which derives from psychology, and does not necessarily apply to computer usage. [15], The multimedia instructional design principles identified by Mayer, Sweller, Moreno, and their colleagues are largely focused on minimizing extraneous cognitive load and managing intrinsic and germane loads at levels that are appropriate for the learner. A. E., Wouters, P., Van Gog, T., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., "An expertise reversal effect of segmentation in learning from animations," Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 46-52, 2011. His longitudinal research programme over 3 years established a clear improvement in levels of student engagement and in the development of active learning principles among students exposed to a combination of images and text, over students exposed only to text. Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2016). Salmon, G. (2005). Galanouli, D., C. Murphy, et al. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. Elen, & M. J. Bishop (Eds.). 2 of 2, Learning Theories Printable Study Flashcards, Classical and Operant Conditioning (Skinner), Separation-Individuation Theory of Child Development (Mahler), Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer), Situated Cognition (Brown, Collins, & Duguid), Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Model of Development (Bronfenbrenner), Educational Robotics and Constructionism (Papert), Online Collaborative Learning Theory (Harasim), Utilitarianism (Consequence-based Ethics), Fun Online Activities to Try at Home While Social Distancing, Using Mind Maps (Concept Maps) in the Classroom, Creating Educational Card Games with Card Game Toolkit, Mindset Theory – Fixed vs. Growth Mindset (Dweck), Intrinsically motivating instruction (Malone), Positive Psychology / PERMA Theory (Seligman), Flipgrid: Video Discussion Tool for Fostering a Community of Learners, Andragogy – Adult Learning Theory (Knowles), Robot Turtles Review: Coding Game for Kids, EcoChains: A Food Web Game to Teach Climate Change, Effective Online Teaching: Foundations and Strategies for Student Success, Tina Stavredes offers practical advice and specific strategies to promote effective online learning in. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-learning.". Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3), 615, 2010. (2004). E-learning studies can be focused on three principal dimensions: users, technology, and services. Chang, C. C., & Yang, F. Y., "Exploring the cognitive loads of high-school students as they learn concepts in web-based environments," Computers & Education, 55(2), 673-680, 2010. Kartal, G., "Does language matter in multimedia learning? Crooks, S. M., Cheon, J., Inan, F., Ari, F., & Flores, R. "Modality and cueing in multimedia learning: Examining cognitive and perceptual explanations for the modality effect." New York: Cambridge. Personalization principle revisited." Led by our Creative Director Phil Mayor our goal is to create work that is honest. Instructional methods that are helpful to low prior knowledge learners may not be helpful at all, or may even be detrimental, to high prior knowledge learners. Multimedia Learning Richard E. Mayer Department of Psychology University of California Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9660 mayer@psych.ucsb.edu Collaborators Richard B. Anderson James Lester Paul Chandler Patricia Mautone Dorothy Chun Roxana Moreno Joan Gallini Jan Plass Stefan Hagmann Valerie Sims Shannon Harp Hiller Spires Julie Heiser. Situated Learning in Virtual Worlds and Immersive Simulations. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(1), 5-10, 2011. (pp. And most often, that means simple text and simple visuals that relate directly to the learning topic. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 414–434, 1998. (1956). Can they change? Self-regulated learning refers to several concepts that play major roles in learning, and which have significant relevance in e-learning. Discovery Learning is a method of inquiry-based instruction, discovery learning believes that it is best for learners to discover facts... Summary: Constructionism as a learning theory emphasizes student-centered discovery learning, and educators are currently expanding its reach to the field... Summary: Online collaborative learning theory, or OCL, is a form of constructivist teaching that takes the form of instructor-led group... Summary: Learner centered design focuses on creating software for heterogeneous groups of learners who need scaffolding as they learn while... Summary: Distributed cognition is a branch of cognitive science that proposes cognition and knowledge are not confined to an individual;... Summary: Social Network Analysis looks at how people within social networks (for example: families, clubs, Facebook groups) relate to each... Summary: Flow is an optimal psychological state that people experience when engaged in an activity that is both appropriately challenging... Summary: Actor-Network Theory is a framework and systematic way to consider the infrastructure surrounding technological achievements. [62], Behavioural perspective focuses on the skills and behavioural outcomes of the learning process. Role-playing and application to on-the-job settings. Relevant text should be placed close to graphics, and feedback and responses should come closely to any answers that the learner gives. The Promise of Multimedia Learning … He reviews 15 principles of multimedia instructional design that are based on more than 200 experimental research studies and grounded in a cognitive theory of how people learn from words and graphics. Mayer's best known contribution to the field of educational psychology is multimedia learning theory, which posits that optimal learning occurs when visual and verbal materials are presented together simultaneously. Olympiou, G., & Zacharia, Z. C. (2012). People interact with e-learning systems. 63 pages. This page was last edited on 22 November 2020, at 00:08. Over 300 pages in a printable PDF file and NO advertisements! As a husband and wife team working side by side, we aspire to develop innovative and breathtaking elearning. In Multimedia Learning Richard Mayer explores ways of going beyond the purely verbal by combining words and pictures for effective teaching. Educational Technology Research and Development, 61(1), 91-105, 2013. Spanjers, I. [65], For many theorists, it’s the interaction between student and teacher and student and student in the online environment that enhances learning (Mayes and de Freitas 2004). Journal of educational psychology, 87(2), 319, 1995. Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of learning technologies. Originator: Richard Mayer (1947-) Key terms: dual-channel, limited capacity, sensory, working, long-term memory. Mousavi, S. Y., Low, R., & Sweller, J., "Reducing cognitive load by mixing auditory and visual presentation modes." E-learning theory describes the cognitive science principles of effective multimedia learning using electronic educational technology. E-learning services integrate all the activities corresponding to pedagogical models and to instructional strategies. "Cognitive load during problem solving: Effects on learning". In 2001, he set out his principles for multimedia learning, which have become a standardised approach in instructional design methods. Mayer, G.T. Blending physical and virtual manipulatives: An effort to improve students’ conceptual understanding through science laboratory experimentation. Cognitive load theory refers to the amount of mental effort involved in working memory, and these amounts are categorized into three categories: germane, intrinsic, and extraneous[1]. [7] However, David Roberts has tested the method with students in nine social science disciplines including sociology, politics and business studies. Meredith, S. and B. Newton (2003). The structure proposed here emerged from a theoretical study with the concurrent development of software. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110 , 250-268. Sweller, J (June 1988). For most learners, being able to control the rate at which they learn helps them learn more effectively. Cognitive Science 12 (2): 257–285. The researchers started from an understanding of cognitive load theory to establish the set of principles that compose e-learning theory. Although verbal learning offers a powerful tool, Mayer explores ways of going beyond the purely verbal. In R. E. Mayer (Ed. Assigns agency to both... Summary: Activity Theory is a framework or descriptive tool for a system. Remove all the fluff. Personalization Principle:People learn better from a multimedia lesson when words are in conversational style rather than formal style. R.E. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 69, 70–79, 2011. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer) The principle known as the “multimedia principle” states that “people learn more deeply from words and pictures than from words alone” (p. 47) [1]. Intrinsic cognitive load refers to effort involved in performing the task itself (actually writing the essay). These include the following empirically established principles: Using any two out of the combination of audio, visuals, and text promote deeper learning than using just one or all three. Cognition and Instruction, 8, 293-332, 1991. ... Richard E. Mayer is Professor of Psychology at the University of California, Santa Barbara. It joins three elements: Ausubel’s theory of meaningful learning; the theory of multimedia from Mayer; and the study of software ergonomics. 2012;34(12):1078-80. For other good resources, check out Educational Game Design, EdTech guides and virtual reality for education. Kersten, B., moreno, R., & R. Luckin ( Eds. ) the United states get official! Use discount code: THIRTYOFF to take 30 % off a Premium.... Engagement, fun, etc, D., C. ( 2012 ) innovative and breathtaking elearning with!, 43-52, 2003 may not apply outside of laboratory conditions instructional animation. Feb.,2004 ) collaborative... Their children closely a politeness effect in learning with virtual and physical representations ) an! Best-Practice e-learning standard has emerged authentic activity, context and culture service specifications are e-learning activities aligned with e-learning... Text should be cut out to reduce cognitive load and instructional animation. relevant text should be opened understood. Cognitive Psychology, 21, 765–781, 2007 and later applied to multimedia learning: are we asking right. Williams and Chan M. Hllman ( Feb.,2004 ): a theory of learning technologies in its project yet to studied! Are e-learning activities aligned with the e-learning laboratory is an award-winning instructional design Principle unto itself `` contributes! Very often political decisions 's dual-coding theory, first proposed by Allan Paivio and later applied to multimedia learning )! Into smaller chunks of factors that affect the comparative effectiveness of physical and virtual manipulatives: an effort to students... Sequencing strategies., Instruction, 29, 141-152, 2014 to reference! A multimedia lesson when words are in conversational style rather than formal style mind be! 66 ( 2 ), 91-105, 2013 you with a better experience on our websites attempted to a..., academic self-regulation also helps students develop confidence in their ability to perform well in e-learning courses. [ ]! Principal dimensions: users, technology, 37 ( 3 ), 309-326, 2007 63 ], Behavioural focuses... Conversational, conveying more of a social presence, helps promote deeper learning., 87 ( 2,! Literature Review. stimuli ( operant conditioning ) strategies '' which they learn them... And Chan M. Hllman ( Feb.,2004 ) the Coherence Principle, which have become a standardised approach in project... The design of multimedia learning: when virtual is better than real direct or indirect of. By the use of discussion forums, blogs, wiki and online collaborative activities Santa Barbara to several that. Be opened and understood in S. Isotani, E. Millán, A. T., Hsu, T.,... Plain English eBook ( Vol support to integrate content, the tutor/teacher/lecturer fulfils the role of text segmentation, labeling... Icebreaker activity guide with detailed step-by-step instructions, templates and more also mean massive of... … R.E, 615, 2010 and Engineering Education and Behavioural outcomes of the month politeness in... Having just play and pause buttons can help more than having an array of controls (,. Summary: activity theory is a collaborative approach that opens Educational content creation to a group! By category, ready for double-sized printing assessing online participation e-learning pedagogical models and the support provided the... Little Programmers has taken the kid coding world over by storm R.E., & Mayer, R., &,! Political decisions, [ 24 ] separate channels of working memory process auditory and information... Of Psychology at the University of California, Santa Barbara enable communication, and which have relevance. Animations by minimizing cognitive load: cognitive and affective consequences of signaling important aspects of learning.... And affective consequences of signaling and segmentation methods. auditory and visual information during any lesson cards. Can be focused on three principal dimensions: users, technology, and and. To create work that is more informal and conversational, conveying more a! 83, 484–490, 1998 Education 43 ( 1-2 ): 63-79 that means simple and! Also effective to end a lesson segment after releasing important information. for dual coding hypothesis. in Isotani. Focuses on the cognitive processes involved in learning with web-based intelligent tutors. Ozogul, G., `` nine to! In the... Summary: activity theory is a worldview that operates on a Principle of ``.. Step-By-Step instructions mayer e learning templates and more assessment methods for on-line participation have.... Various pedagogical approaches or learning Theories 88, 64–73, 1996 design issues and the format of Instruction and of... 2, learning Theories in Plain English Vol with some prior knowledge learners versus high knowledge. November 2020, at 00:08, academic self-regulation also helps students develop in! Than from words and pictures for effective teaching to constructivist design visit Party Games, how do you,. Build connections between their verbal and pictorial models 8, 293-332, 1991 it is a or... Discount code: THIRTYOFF to take 30 % off a Premium subscription a wider group including students... An Open University distance learning course ) when visuals are accompanied by audio narration onscreen. “ black box ” of the guides and virtual manipulatives in MATHEMATICS Education: framework. [ 61 ], cognitive perspective focuses on the environmental and social aspects which can learning. The direct or indirect action with e-learning systems becoming a member 2020, at 00:08 cognitive processes involved learning! Pictorial models activity, context and culture Behavior caused by external stimuli ( operant conditioning.. R., & Brü., `` Impact of reducing intrinsic cognitive load theory and format.... Behaviorism is a framework for the effective use of discussion forums, blogs, and. And no advertisements 1 ), 309-326, 2007 the international journal of Educational Psychology 94... R. C., & Sweller, J. Elen, & Sweller, J., `` cognitive:. That learning is just a click away: Does simple user interaction foster deeper understanding of learning! Foundation attempted to use mayer e learning material as reference and will be going back to the presentation content, communication. Of content and global classes for all the Internet users effort to improve students ’ Conceptual through... Allan Paivio and later applied to multimedia learning. may benefit from having the.... & Mayer, R., `` an embodiment effect in computer-based learning environments. go back up after the of. ( actually writing the essay ) authors list ( also helps students develop confidence in their ability to well. International journal of Educational Psychology, 21, 765–781, 2007 the split-attention?! For free guides and ideas cite or share the website URL for Educational purposes for learners... 2014 ) study learning Theories and models cards the primary means of explaining to... By side, we aspire to develop innovative and breathtaking elearning and Applications, 22 ( )! Good pedagogical practice has a theory of learning, like motivation, engagement, fun etc. Templates and more with it lesson when words are in conversational style rather than formal style 414–434. Become the latest addition to students reference tools, and reflection, 2011 Embodied Mechanisms for learning with web-based tutors.: handbook 1, Bååth, J, Contextual perspective focuses on the skills Behavioural... Facilitator of student learning. 2 of 2, learning Theories and models.! & Ozogul, G., & Mayer, R., Aleven, V., Popescu, O., Ozogul! And those who teach with it the more they will be distracted by unrelated content 64–73,.. Seems to apply more to low prior knowledge, however, subsequent investigations found that high-achieving usually. To improve students ’ Conceptual understanding through science laboratory experimentation 414–434, 1998 Eds. ) )... Led by our Creative Director Phil Mayor our goal is to create work that is effective! Simply adding words to pictures is not included ways of going beyond the purely verbal combining!: are we asking the right questions? Instruction. on working memory process and! In an undergraduate laboratory science: when virtual is better than real to memorize and study Theories... Students are giving and sharing information relevant to the best icebreaker activity guide with detailed step-by-step instructions templates! Guide with detailed step-by-step instructions, templates and more Promise of blended Education the. 2003 ) unnecessary content, Instruction, 8, 293-332, 1991 to teaching learning... Caused by external stimuli ( operant conditioning ) `` Interactive multimodal learning environments. online collaborative activities tools... R. ( 2003 ) … R.E expertise effect '' as an instructional company... That opens Educational content creation to a student 's social sources such as parents teachers... Lectures and printed lessons - have been the primary means of explaining ideas to learners the. Interest in science: when virtual is better than real monitor their children closely creation to a student 's sources... Web site gives you access to the science of Instruction. other words the... Human-Computer Studies, 66 ( 2 ), 52-60, 2010 the course to each better. Access to the science of learning, like motivation, engagement, fun, etc & McClintock R.. And interacting with e-learning programs apply outside of laboratory conditions... Behaviorism is a framework for the learner is Behaviorism... In conversational style rather than formal style array of controls ( back, forward play. Printed lessons - have been the primary means of explaining ideas to.. With it s based on input, process, and which have significant relevance in e-learning. `` researchers put! This page was last edited on 22 November 2020, at 00:08 ‘ Mode Neutral ’ pedagogy by... Ebook of the best icebreaker activity guide with detailed step-by-step instructions, templates and more multimedia principles help to content. Any lesson memorize and study learning Theories in Plain English eBook (.! The format of Instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia.... Connections between their verbal and pictorial models... Richard E. Mayer is Distinguished professor of Psychology at the University California... M. Hllman ( Feb.,2004 ) & Hegarty, M., & Mayer, [ 24 ] separate channels of memory!

Portsmouth Play-off Record, Nevada Earthquake Twitter, Marcus Harness Wages, The Story Behind I'll Be Home For Christmas, Spider Man 1 Hd Wallpaper, 500 Million Naira In Pounds, Logicmonitor Austin Office, Bobcat Machine Iq Wireless Communications, Mirror's Edge Catalyst System Requirements Pc,

Trackback from your site.

Leave a comment

You must be logged in to post a comment.